Glued laminated timber, Glulam
Glued laminated timber has a considered birthplace in Finland. They began to produce glued beams for about thirty years ago. The advantages of Glued laminated timber are in the technology of its production. Compared with other materials laminated board has better mechanical strength, resistance to rotting and burning.
Experts recommend the use of Glued laminated timber for house construction under adverse weather conditions, as well as homes in several floors due to the minimal shrinkage and resistance to stress. The process of making a laminated board is different from the production of logs with the number and complexity of operations. Production of Glued laminated timber begins with a billet of wood.
Our company uses pine from the Vitebsk region, northern region of the Republic of Belarus. Pine - environmentally friendly and a perfect building material for construction of houses from glued beams. Use of the northern woods to the production of Glued laminated timber is a guarantee of high quality, durability and reliability of timber.
Glued laminated timber production - is a long and interesting process. Harvested logs are sawed into boards, which are then dried in special drying chamber. Boards are dried to a moisture content of 10-12%, so actually glued laminated wood does not shrink. The dried material is quality control, planed and turned into "fins" that are the foundation of Glued laminated timber. Press "fins" are glued to the wooden beams of the specified section.
At the stage of finalizing the wooden Glued laminated timber is cut and profiled in details in accordance with the project of wooden houses. After sorting and labeling of building elements we fulfill control assembly of wooden houses from glued beams on our production. After checking, the house is disassembled, the elements of Glued laminated timber stacked, loaded and shipped to the customer. House of Glued laminated timber is sent to the site as a ready-to-assemble kit.
The most promising direction in the wood industry, is considered to be manufacturing and the use of glued laminated timber. The high performance of this product is achieved through the use of complex processing of timber, specific qualities of raw materials and the broad scope of numerous construction projects focused on multi- and single-storey wooden house.
Glulam has an established international name GLT - Glued Laminated Timber, Glulam, which can be translated as "glued laminated timber". This term is well established in the technical Russian language and is used when character denoted cabinet, and including integral construction materials, structures, structures made by way of the axial (longitudinal) fastening wooden parts, by bonding over their entire surface.
Technological process of manufacturing a laminated board is carried out by gluing individual boards (or blades) that make up the set value packages. As a rule, made of timber conifer species. On the territory of the Republic of Belarus timber glued mainly of Scots pine or spruce. Abroad, such as Japan, the United States or Canada is made of Douglas fir (hemlock or another pseudo Menzies).
The most advantageous quality laminated board lie in the fact that, in contrast to the massive homogeneous wood, the composite provides the ability to obtain a product with the specified quality of strength, appearance and dimensions. This is only possible as a result of the removal of defects by cutting or drilling defects from solid lumber. Such as particularly demanding projects of houses hi tech.
Lamela called specially sorted and glued along the entire length of the board. The most reliable and durable structure made up of slats made from wood of Northern regions, which are widely used in the construction of wooden houses or manufacture of durable goods for domestic or industrial use.
History of laminated veneer lumber:
The most ancient method of gluing wood in several layers, is known to manufacture a bow for Japanese soldiers since the XII century. To increase the strength and elasticity of small arms (which are constantly subjected to deformation), glued several kinds of wood and bamboo. This product guarantee greater accuracy and range shooting with a high probability of hitting the target.
The very idea of the articulation with the help of a wooden bar wedge done thing Philibert artist and architect. The method of connecting the individual pieces of wood for construction and design details of the palace buildings, Philibert, first used in 1548.
Also D. Philibert, curved puff and connected with wedges or splines products, widely used ancient baroque architects who also built houses from round logs. No exception and the ancient master carpenters of old Russia, which were well-known these technologies.After several centuries, namely from the XIX century, arched wooden structures began to collect from the individual parts to one another and fastened with metal clamps, cable ties. This method allows the construction of an arch with a large radius of the arc.
Otto Hetzer, wood master carpenter from Germany is much closer to our time, the idea of bonding the individual layers of wood by gluing pieces using casein glue. Master, with the help of this new technology could give structures of any shape or curvature, giving them high strength and reliability.
Otto Karl Friedrich Hetzer in 1906 (June 22) was honored to receive the national patent for the manufacture of bent glued farms, numbering two or more slats, under the number 197773. Since then, in Switzerland, was built many wooden buildings complex design, a large number of of which have survived to the present day functioning.
More common way to GLT, began to be applied to the beginning of the invention of industrial adhesives is not natural (chemical) origins in the 1960s - 1970s in Europe.
Advantages of laminated veneer lumberThe main factors in the use of pre-emptive use of technology of laminated veneer lumber are the following:
-Ability To create a solid frame-fachwerk;
-Making Solid, durable product custom sizes (up to 84 meters long Austria, Wiehag);
-Production Beam curved design of products with the ability to evenly distribute the load bearing on the entire surface;
-Isklyuchayutsya Acquired during the manufacturing process or during long-term operation, the deformation or change in shape of the product;
-Significant Increased safety factor laminated structure in comparison with the homogeneous material due to visual grading and gluing slats with high-strength adhesives to DIN 1052 index of stability, which is important for the house of laminated veneer lumber;
-Nevysoky Share of the entire structure;-In The process of using the product of laminated veneer lumber, almost completely eliminated curvature, as well as through cracks or other deformation affecting structural integrity, by cutting, pressing and drying of the individual slats, which removes internal stress of the material;
-Increased Fire resistance of laminated veneer lumber, even in comparison with metal structures (beams of bonded material, as practice shows, are much longer retain strength during a fire);
-Construction Of log homes, using laminated veneer lumber, shows minimal shrinkage - only 1-2%;
-Poteri Heat from the buildings of the GLT material is considerably lower than the built of solid wood;
-Contents Chemicals from glued structures smaller than that of chipboard, OSB or LVL;
-High Resistance to aggressive environments, allowing long-term use of the structure of laminated veneer lumber, for example, storage for chemicals, fertilizers, baths from a bar, swimming pools, etc .;
-No Production structures or operation of buildings do not harm the environment.
In addition, the use of laminated veneer lumber is widely used for the manufacture of load-bearing structures of complex roofs, custom roofs of shopping centers, wooden bridges, ice rinks, circuses, railway stations and other. No less extensive use of GLT is in the construction of traditional wooden objects, such as: bath of bar, churches, houses, stables and other outbuildings with a non-standard configuration.
Construction technology of laminated veneer lumber massively applied in carcass construction throughout Russia, Sweden, Norway and North America as well as in the use of load-bearing beams and struts (Beam and Post; Fachwerk) to Japan, Europe and the United States.
At the same time, in an infinite variety of laminated products are used in the manufacture of interior - arched or standard window, the input or interior doors, spiral or straight stairs, window sills, railings, racks, furniture and other carpentry.
Disadvantages of laminated veneer lumberIs the relative high cost of production of the house of laminated veneer lumber in comparison with the manufacture of wooden parts of shaped timber or logs;
Manufacturing technology of laminated veneer lumberIn specialized cells, sorted by quality and dimensional characteristics of the sawn boards are dried to a moisture content ranging from 8 to 18% (the percentage depends on the type of glue or destination timber). This initial process lays the foundation for the further processing step and eliminates shrinkage during operation.
Slats with remove excess moisture sent to planers and selected depending on the fortress (4074-S10 DIN). This period includes the marking and cutting segments with defects, which include chips, cracks, knots, bevels, wane or damaged edges. Boards having no defect is connected with other parts of small spikes in the slats and processed on the machines in the first category of purity.
Sort material can be of two types -automatic which is carried out using special equipment or visual carried out by trained specialists, so-called "graders". However, automated inspection is preferable, because a deeper and more comprehensive analysis, excluding the inevitable "human factor". This is especially valuable when the wooden houses built in the style of hi teh.
Further, at the edges glued lamellas cut milling machine articulation gear shape. The teeth may be cut parallel to or transversely of a plane beam. This stage is considered the most responsible throughout the process of manufacture of laminated veneer lumber. From precision cutting or manufacturing joint "slot - spike" will depend on all the quality of the final part or structure, which now require most projects of houses and the prices of their construction.
The last stage of the material sent to planers, after which Planing board equipment cut into the workpiece in accordance with a predetermined length of the product and with the help of powerful hydraulic presses produced slats are glued to the timber the desired thickness.
After pasting in the product is profiled on all four sides on special machines and the end, leading to the desired size.The final phase of the production of laminated veneer lumber, there is a tab coronary bowls on special equipment. Appropriate labeling of the product specifications and packaging pallets, crowns the whole process.
Features laminated veneer lumberThere are some features when bonding bar. The direction of the fibers (or annuli) is set in the opposite direction from each other. This technology makes it more durable houses of timber and prevents the formation of longitudinal cracks or change of the form when the temperature or humidity jumps.
Bruce, this design is an ideal building material, as well as raw materials for the manufacture of parts of individual structures, ensures the reliability and durability of the end product.
On the construction site glulam comes marked every detail, which greatly simplifies the assembly of the construction and does not require extra time spent on fitting elements, opening the prospect of rapidly build a house.
Glue for laminated veneer lumber:
Adhesives used for bonding lamellae have different characteristics, depending on the parameters of the product and its operating conditions.
They may be of the following types:
-Kley Resorcinol dark color is used for different designs or exterior of buildings as well as for areas with high moisture containing atmosphere or direct contact with water (from bath timber, bridges, ship-building services). It used mainly in the United States or Japan.
-Kley Melamine, with light (transparent) adhesive seam is used to span lengths. It is widely used in the Russian territory and in Europe.EPI-system with a transparent adhesive consistency. As a rule, used in the manufacture of small parts or designs for projects of one-storey wooden houses, and is the consumer in the same Japan and Russia.
-Kley Polyurethane - is classified as colorless and quickly solidifies. Fast bonding allows to increase output and reduce the drying process, as the timber holds at 18% humidity. What allows the manufacturer to quickly build a house to the customer.
-Klei With different classes of resistance to moisture: D3 (carpenter); D4 (waterproof for outdoor use); D4 ++++ (with high water resistance).-Klei Used for structures with high requirements of environmental safety: E-1, E-2, E-3.-Klei Use with a certain class - I and II (European classes); A, B, C (classes used in Japan).
Companies Casco Systems, and Dynea, BASF produces the most common adhesives, based on melominovyh and formaldehyde resins. Palm in the production of polyurethane adhesives holding company Klebchemie (bearing the brand name KLEIBERIT) and Leeson Polyurethanes Ltd.
Depending on the scope of use of the final product (in dry areas, areas with high or normal humidity) are different adhesive systems with unconditional certification.
Our company for manufacturing a laminated board using glue KLEIBERIT brand PUR adhesive 507.0. This moisture curing one-component reactive adhesive based on polyurethane having a high water and temperature resistance. D4 water resistance in accordance with DIN / EN 204.
Why is construction and operation of houses of laminated veneer lumber is so popularThe relatively low thermal conductivity characteristic of the house of laminated veneer lumber. For example: a wall of laminated veneer lumber is 20 cm thick, losing five times less heat than the same thickness of the wall, built of brick and 13 times less than the wall of reinforced concrete. It is also noteworthy that the wall of a cylindrical timber with a diameter of 20 cm holds twice more heat than a wall of square laminated veneer lumber the same thickness of 20 cm.
Speaking about the effectiveness of energy conservation, it should be noted that the house of laminated veneer lumber is 40% more than the home of a log frame and 200% higher than the house of brick masonry.
Furthermore, a low coefficient of maximum shrinkage (0.2 to 1% of the total height of the structure) allows continuous building of several storeys, which reduces not only time, but also reduces the cost of construction of the object.
House of laminated veneer lumber is not subject to attack by insects and fungus formation, which excludes the putrefaction and greatly extends the life of the entire structure.
The myth of houses made of glued beamThe myth of the residential area of timber, says that he is bad "breathes" because of the adhesive layers between the wooden slats. In fact, the house "breathes" not only through the structure of the tree itself, but also through the pores mezhventsovogo seal.
On request, in the projects of wooden buildings, seals can be used as natural (flax seal with a density of 600 gr. / M2), or synthetic origin. Moreover, the natural air exchange takes place through the pores of wood along the grain, rather than across, and polyurethane adhesives have microlevel foam structure, which also contributes to a moderate penetration of air and provides sufficient natural ventilation.
Daily living in the "concrete jungle thickets" causing serious damage to the health of each of us. Millions (perhaps billions) of inhabitants dream of living, comfortable, warm and safe homes built from natural materials, and have long wanted to leave the stifling metropolis and move to a house built of lumber.
Wood but pleasant smell, has a wellness have soothing properties, excluding building benefits. It is hard to remain indifferent to the beauty of the structure made of wood materials. In addition, the house, built of timber, says the high status of the owner. He is the epitome of reliability, naturalness and beauty. Given that gas consumption for heating the house from timber or energy saving, always pleasant to those who know how to count money.
Disadvantages of the structure of the timber is so small that most of their small numbers have been overcome, and their number can not be compared with the number of deficiencies houses built of stone, brick, cinder block or concrete.Although the production process of laminated veneer lumber multi enough and difficult, nevertheless the cost of its production, fully justified by the quality of products, reliability and long service life.
The history of the use of laminated wood is rich in positive examples and visual aids, structures that have served for centuries and continue to operate successfully in our days. Therefore, deciding to build from laminated veneer lumber warm house, which is commensurate with the quality of the price, you will set up a comfortable building for many generations.
If you are interested in glued laminated timber, Glulam, you may:
Other produts on Glulam
Glued Laminated Timber (Gluelam), Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL)
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